LEARNING DISABILITY IN MATHS SUBJECT IN HIGHER EDUCATION
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## LEARNING DISABILITY IN MATHS SUBJECT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Many school systems provide special education services based on children's Learning disabilities. For children with mathematical disorders, which are included in the definition of learning disability, mathematical learning difficulties, children are referred for assessment. As soon as they are classified as learning disabilities (LD), only a few children receive a sound assessment and remedy of their numeracy difficulties.

# LEARNING DISABILITY IN MATHS SUBJECT

Relative neglect leads parents and teachers to believe that arithmetic learning problems are not common and not serious. But evidence from learning disabled adults debunks the societal myth that it's OK to be lazy in math. Approximately 6% of school-age children with significant math deficits are students who are classified as having learning difficulties due to numeracy difficulties and not due to pervasive reading problems. This does not mean that reading disabilities are always associated with an arithmetic learning problem. It means that mathematical deficits can be widespread and need appropriate attention and concern.

In today's world, mathematical knowledge and thinking skills are no less important than reading skills. For students with reading difficulties, there are math difficulties, which can range from easy to difficult. After years of schooling, the impact of mathematics failure, along with math illiteracy in later adulthood, can be a hindrance in everyday life and job possibilities.

There is no evidence that all children have different disabilities in maths. The research attempts to classify these types of disabilities in mathematics are validated and generally accepted, but caution is needed when describing different degrees of mathematical disability. It seems obvious that students experience not only different intensities of mathematical dilemmas of different kinds but also different classrooms, which must emphasize adaptation and different methods.

Many students with learning disabilities have persistent difficulties in memorizing basic figures, facts, and four operations with enough understanding, despite the great efforts made to do so. Although they know 5, 7, 12, 4x6, and 24, they still count fingers, pencil marks, doodling circles for years and seem incapable of developing efficient memory strategies on their own. In such cases, some present their remarkable difficulties in learning math, and it is vital not to prevent them from knowing their facts. You may use pocket-sized facts and graphs to continue with complex calculations, applications, and problem-solving.

The addition and multiplication charts should be used for subtraction and division. Students should prove speed and reliability to know the number of facts before being removed from the personal horoscope. For the use of basic fact references, a portable fact reference diagram on the back of a pocket format for older students is preferable to an electronic calculator.

A complete set of answers is valuable, and finding the same answer in the same place and time can help in remembering. Use cardboard cutouts in a reverse L shape for children who are having trouble obtaining solutions at vertical or horizontal crossings.

Blackened facts can be mastered, but over-reliance on graphs is discouraged, and motivation to learn increases.

Students with learning difficulties are unable to master basic facts and figures. They have an excellent understanding of mathematical concepts but are contradictory in their arithmetic. They are unreliable when it comes to paying attention to operational signs, borrowing, and performing complex operations. Pupils with difficulties may be tutors in mathematics in primary school years when calculation accuracy is less stressed, and later in higher grades, where their conceptual skills are in demand.

If these pupils are not accepted into upper secondary maths classes, they will continue to exhibit reckless mistakes and inconsistent numeracy skills, and they will be denied access to the higher maths skills they are capable of. Mathematics is more than the question of whether the right answers are reliable and can be calculated accurately, and it is important to access the wide range of mathematical skills and not to judge intelligence and understanding by observing weak or low abilities. Joint partnerships with students can develop self-monitoring systems with sophisticated payment while providing full and enriched scope for math teaching.

Many young children with difficulties in elementary mathematics are brought to school with a strong foundation of informal mathematical understanding. But, they find it difficult to combine this informal knowledge with the formal procedures, language, and symbolic notation systems of school mathematics. In fact, it is a complex feat to depict a new world in mathematical symbols, to know the world of magnitudes and actions, and at the same time to learn the special language we use to speak about arithmetic. The collision between their informal skills and those of school mathematics is as coherent and rhythmic as a child's experience of writing music is different from that of a child.

To make the connections strong and solid, students must have a lot of practice with a variety of concrete types. Concrete materials can be moved, held together, grouped, and separated and make them a more vivid teaching tool than pictorial representations. When images and semi-abstract symbols are introduced, they confuse the delicate connections that arise between the existing concepts of the new language of mathematics and the formal world of written numerical problems. Teachers exacerbate the difficulty in this phase of learning by asking students to match images and groups of numbers with sentences before they have enough experience to relate the variety of physical representations and the different ways in which we string mathematical symbols together and the different ways in which we call them words.

There is research showing that students who use concrete materials develop more precise and comprehensive mental representations and show more motivation, tasks, and behavior to understand and apply mathematical ideas in life situations. Structured concrete resources, on the other hand, are beneficial in the conceptual development phase of mathematical themes at all grade levels. Structured concrete materials can be used to develop concepts that explain early number relationships, place-value calculations, fractions, decimals, measures, geometry, money, percentages, number bases, history problems, probabilities, statistics, algebra, etc. Different types of concrete materials are suitable for different educational purposes (see Annex A for a selected list of material dealers).

Students have particular difficulty in arranging mathematical symbols in conventional vertical, horizontal, and multi-level algorithms, and need a great deal of experience to translate from one form to another. Workbooks with ditto pages loaded with problem-solving can help students retain their uncertainty with the norms of written mathematical notation. In these workbooks, students learn to act as problem solvers and demonstrators of mathematical ideas. The materials are not taught by themselves, but they work through teacher guidance, student interaction, and repeated demonstrations and explanations by teacher and student.

It can be helpful to structure pages with boxes of different shapes. For example, a teacher could specify the answer to an addition problem in a double box next to which it can be translated into two related subtraction problems. The teacher can dictate to the students the problem solutions that they should translate from the picture form (vertical notation) into the horizontal notation.

In pairs, the students give the answers to the problem on individual maps, and they alternate their demonstrations and examples of evidence with bundles of materials or sticks to solve the problem. You then work in pairs to translate the answers in two different ways: read the answers in 20 / 56 (1.120) and then read twenty times fifty-six (corresponding to one thousand one hundred twenty), and then multiply that number by one thousand, one hundred twenty.

These proposals are designed to free young people from the shackles of thinking that maths is all about getting the right answer. They also help to create an attitude of mind that combines understanding with symbolic representations linked to appropriate language variations. For LD students who are handicapped due to terminology confusion, difficulties in following verbal explanations, or weak verbal skills in the linguistic aspect of mathematics, every step of a complex calculation (e.g. Instead of adding "A" and "Z" to the solutions, the goal is to find the "bad eggs.".

Teachers can help by slowing the pace of their transmission, maintaining the normal timing of phrases, and providing information in individual segments. Questioning, delivering instructions, explaining theories, and providing explanations all need slower amounts of spoken information. The time in mathematics should be filled with explanations from teachers, rather than with silent written exercises. This is especially important when asking students to verbalize their actions.

Letting students play with the teacher is not only fun but also necessary to learn the complexity of language and mathematics. Children with language deficits respond to math problems on the page by signaling that meaningful sentences need to be read for comprehension. Students with language confusion must provide specific material to explain what they are doing, regardless of age or level of math, not in the first grade. Understanding children tend to be better when they need to explain, elaborate, and defend their position than when others are burdened with doing so, which is an extra impetus for those who need to connect and integrate their knowledge in a critical way.

It's because they avoid verbalizing. Young and older students need to develop a habit of reading what is being said about the problem rather than calculating it. By engaging in these simple steps of self-verbalization, they can pay more attention to their attentive slip-ups and reckless mistakes. Listen to me and ask if anything makes sense.

Students with limited conceptual understanding and significant motor impairment are thought to have right hemisphere dysfunction. In a small number of LD students, disorders in visual, spatial, and motor organization lead to poor understanding of concepts, poor numerical sense, specific visual difficulties, uncontrolled handwriting, and confused arrangement of numbers and characters on one page. Adolescents with language impairments undertake repeated teacher modeling, patient remembering, and a lot of practice with stitch cards and visual reminders.

This small subgroup requires a strong emphasis on a precise and clear verbal description. In fact, they need to be corrected in the areas of image interpretation (e.g. Diagrams, graphs), reading, and non-verbal social cues. They seem to enjoy replacing verbal constructions with the intuitive, spatial, and relational understanding that they lack. Illustrative examples and diagrammatic explanations can confuse them, and they should not be used when trying to teach or clarify concepts.

To develop an understanding of mathematical concepts, it is useful to use concrete teaching materials (e.g. Stars, Cuisenaire bars) and conscientious attention to developing stable verbal reproductions of quantity (5), relation (5 less than 7), and action (5 + 2 = 7 ). For example, students should learn to recognize a triangle by holding a triangular block and saying to themselves, "This is a triangle with three sides. Understanding visual connections and organization can be difficult for some students, so it is important to anchor verbal constructions through repeated experience with structured materials that feel seen and moved when spoken about.