A linear equation is an algebraic equation in which each term is either a constant or the product of a constant and (the first power of) a single variable (however, different variables may occur in different terms). A simple example of a linear equation with only one variable, x, may be written in the form: ax + b = 0, where a and b are constants and a ≠ 0. The constants may be numbers, parameters, or even non-linear functions of parameters, and the distinction between variables and parameters may depend on the problem.
The graph of a linear inequality in one variable is a number line. Inequalities that have the same solution are called equivalent. There are properties of inequalities as well as there were properties of equality. All the properties below are also true for inequalities involving ≥ and ≤.
The graph of linear inequalities includes a dashed line if they are greater than or less than but not equal to. Linear equations, on the other hand, include a solid line in every situation. Moreover, linear inequalities include shaded regions, whereas linear equations do not.