Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945 from France. Before independence, it was under Chinese rule. Even after independence, Chinese culture and systems of government were maintained in Vietnam. They too fought back to gain their freedom and this where their nationalist movement started. Vietnam gained formal independence even before India. This article gives the backdrop to the rise of nationalism in Vietnam (Indo- China). We have seen how Vietnam was a country that was emerging from the shadows of China. It then became a colony for the French, and that set the stage for the rise of nationalism. All the exploitative policies of the French thus united the Vietnamese with a spirit of patriotism.