Modernization began with the age of industrialization in Europe. Factories came up quickly, generating large-scale production of goods and this led to the worldwide trade. New inventions and innovation in technology accelerated this process. European nations expanded their colonies, and modernization also reached there. The Industrial Revolution was a time when the manufacturing of goods moved from small shops and homes to large factories. This shift brought about changes in culture as people moved from rural areas to big cities to work. This chapter will focus on the history of Britain, the first industrial nation, and then India, where the pattern of industrial change was conditioned by colonial rule.