The use of biology to develop technologies and products for the welfare of human beings is known as Biotechnology. It has various applications in different fields such as Therapeutics, Diagnostics, Processed Food, Waste Management, Energy Production, Genetically Modified Crops etc. Biotechnology deals with the industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and biologicals with the aid of genetically modified microbes, animals, and plants. The applications of biotechnology are diagnostics, therapeutics, genetically modified crops for processed food, agriculture, bioremediation, energy production, and waste treatment. Through this chapter, students learn how we humans use biotechnology to improve the quality of human life, specifically in the field of health and food production.