The variability among living organisms on the Earth, including the variability within and between species, and within and between ecosystems. Biodiversity conservation is about saving life on Earth in all its forms and keeping natural ecosystems functioning and healthy. The chapter discusses the three components of biodiversity – genetic, species and ecosystem biodiversity. Some other topics covered are patterns of biodiversity – latitudinal gradients, species-area relationships, its importance, loss of biodiversity. Students understand the importance of conserving biodiversity and how we can conserve our biodiversity.