Several major ruling dynasties emerged in different parts of the subcontinent between the seventh and twelfth centuries. A Kingdom is a piece of land, which is ruled by either a King or a Queen. By the seven-century, there were big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent. Existing kings often acknowledged them as their samantas or subordinates. The prominent ruling dynasties were Gurjara-Pratiharas, Palas, Rashtrakutas and Chahamans in North India and the Chola, Pandyas and Chalukyas in South India.