“Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution.” Some of the essential political traditions of the nineteenth century and how they influenced change in European society. Through the revolution in Russia, socialism became one of the most important and powerful ideas to shape society in the twentieth century. All political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914. In 1914, the Russian emperor was Tsar Nicholas II. He fought several wars to expand his empire in the north and west in Europe. He had borne the expenditure of war by taxing the ordinary people of Russia. Majority of the Russians were agriculturalists. Nobles and clergy owned the major part of the land. Most industries were the private property of industrialists, and the industry was found in pockets. Government supervised large factories. February Revolution and October Revolution took place.