Concise Selina Solutions for Class 8 Biology Chapter 4 Ecosystem


An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the non-living components of their environment, interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. An ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscape, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems contain biotic or living, parts, as well as abiotic factors, or non-living parts. Biotic factors include plants, animals, and other organisms. A community made of both living organisms and non-living organisms such as air, water, minerals, soils etc. is known as an Ecosystem. There are two ways of interpreting an ecosystem.

An ecosystem can be considered to be an interdependent collection of plants and animals.

An ecosystem can also be viewed as a structured system or community having general rules to govern them.

The nutrient cycles and the energy flows are the two ways in which the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) organisms interact with each other.

The ecosystem does not include the interactions among organisms alone; instead, it deals with the cooperation of the organisms with its environment as well. Though the ecosystems can be of any size, each of these ecosystems has a specific or limited space.