Electricity is chapter 12 of class 10th science and in this chapter, we study about two types of Charges, one is when charges are in rest and the second is when charges are in motion. In the electricity chapter, we will study charges and they are called when they are in rest or motion. Electricity is a major chapter of class 10th science book. If you understand the concepts and basics of this chapter then it will also help you in the 12th class. The Electricity chapter is beneficial for both the 10th and 12th classes because it has good weightage in the syllabus. Numerical and calculations related to electricity are given in the NCERT solutions series. You will get solutions and a summary of the full electricity chapter in NCERT solution.
In this chapter 1 of the physics part of class 10th, we will study the definition of electricity charges, how electricity is generated in any matter and how electric charges work. In the Electricity chapter, we will learn about positive and negative charges and what happens when we place two objects with different charges or the same charges together. In NCERT solutions of class 10th physics, we get answers related to all the points that are explained in chapter electricity. Chapter 12 of class 10th which is electricity has explained so much about electricity, its charges, how it works, etc. all these points will help you out in learning Electricity in class 12th.
We have studied that electricity is a fundamental form of energy and Electric current is the rate of flow of charges. Now, what is the charge? And how does it flow? As we studied in previous classes that everything we see is made up of matter and matter consists of mass. We also learned that something that has mass will attract the other thing that also has mass. The force of attraction depends on the mass of any object, if any object has greater mass then the force of attraction will also be greater. Mass and electric charge are two characteristics of matter that are responsible for applying force.
The electric charge is an inherent property which means it is present in the matter when it was formed and we can’t generate and destroy the charge. The basic property of charge is that it exists in the material and we can’t separate it. If we want to charge a body then we have to transfer charged particles in that body. The electric charge has the capability of both, attracting and repelling.
There are two types of charges, positive and negative. The force of repulsion only works when some objects with the same charges are placed together, which means when two positive charges or two negative charges are placed together they will repel each other. The force of attraction will only work if we place objects with opposite charges together, which means when we place one negative charge object and one positive charge object together, they will attract each other. The charge can never be created and can never be destroyed. When charges are at rest, they are called electrostatic and when the charges are in motion, they are called current electricity.
In physics of class 10th electricity chapter includes the flow of negative and positive energy in any matter or atom.
Electrons are the smallest particles that have the smallest size and it has a negative charge on them. The proton is also a small particle in any matter and it carries a positive charge. The number of protons and electrons are present equally in any matter and we called it neutral. Every matter present on earth consists of equal numbers of protons and electrons to keep balance in nature. The amount of charge present in the electron is 1.6*10-19 c in which c means coulomb.
Do you know that how we can find out about any matter that is positively charged or negatively charged? When an electron gets energy that leaves the atom and we got two particles one is an electron with a negative charge, which is known as a free electron and the second one is an atom with a positive charge. Sharing of electrons is responsible for charging a body because the mass of electrons is very lighter than the atom. When an electron enters a neutral object while charging, it makes that matter negatively charged. Electrons are the particles that act when we have to charge a body and that transfer from one body to another. Flow of charge in a body indicates the flow of electrons.
We can understand the concept of el electric charges by experimenting, for that experiment we need a cloth and some rods. We have to rub the rod in cloth and place them together. When we place the same type of rods together they will repel each other because they both have the same charges and when we place opposite rods together they will attract each other. This happens because when we rub two things with each other the electrons get transferred and it makes one object negatively charged and another object positively charged. Because of this force, they hold each other like we see chalk & gums and it is known as electrostatic clink.
Electrostatic is a force that tells you about the attraction and repulsion of any object because of the charges they have. The force of electrostatic charge is 1027 than the force of gravity. We don’t get chances to see this force because all the atoms in nature are electrically neutral and this force only developed between any charged bodies. We can create a charge in a body by removal of electrons or excessing the electrons.
Charge in a body will always be in form of +-ne where “n” is no. electrons and ”e” is the charge on electrons. For example, if some atom has 2 charges then it will be formed as 2*1.6*10-19, it will go like 3*1.6*10-19 and it will be never calculated with decimal numbers in the first position
Further in this chapter, we will study electrons and protons, what is the connection between electricity and gravitation with this, we will study about ohm’s law and resistance. Electricity chapter of Class 10th also explained the different combinations of resistors, the Heating Effect of Electric Current and its Applications, and The interrelation between P, V, I, and R. There are some numerical in this chapter related to ohm’s law. In the NCERT solution series, you will get theoretical questions and also numerical questions.