  # JEE Main Syllabus

Syllabus for Paper-1 (B.E. /B. Tech.) - Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry:

##### JEE Syllabus 2023 for Mathematics
Chapters Contents of Mathematics

Unit - 1

Sets, Relations And Functions

Sets and their representation: Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions; one-one, into and onto functions, the composition of functions.

Unit - 2

Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals,Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, Algebra of complex number, Modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number,triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions, Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, the formation of quadratic equations with given roots.

Unit - 3

Matrices And Determinants

Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three, properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants, Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.

Unit - 4

Permutations And Combinations

The fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as section, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.

Unit - 5

Mathematical Induction

Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.

Unit - 6

Binomial Theorem And Its Simple Applications

Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications.

Unit - 7

Sequences And Series

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers, Relation between A.M. and G.M. sum up to n terms of special series; Sn, Sn2, Sn3. Arithmetic - Geometric progression.

Unit - 8

Limit, Continuity And Differentiability

Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric,logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order up to two, Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean value Theorems, Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic - Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normal.

Unit - 9

Integral calculus

Integral as an anti - derivative, Fundamental Integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Evaluation of simple integrals of the type. Integral as limit of a sum. The fundamental theorem of calculus, properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.

Unit - 10

Differential Equations

Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree, the formation of differential equations, solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of a homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type Unit - 11

Co-ordinate Geometry

Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates in a plane, distance formula, sections formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, the slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the co-ordinate axis.

Straight line
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, the distance of a point form a line, equations of internal and external by sectors of angles between two lines, co-ordinate of the centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.

Circles, conic sections
A standard form of equations of a circle, the general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and central, equation of a circle when the endpoints of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent, sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for Y = mx +c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.

Unit - 12

Three Dimensional Geometry

Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, directions ratios and direction cosines, the angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, the intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.

Unit - 13

Vector Algebra

Vectors and scalars, the addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three-dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.

Unit - 14

Statistics And Probability

Measures of discretion;
calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and binomial distribution.

Unit - 15

Trigonometry

Trigonometrical identities and equations, trigonometrical functions, inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties, heights and distance.

Unit - 16

Mathematical Reasoning

Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

##### SECTION A: Theory (80% Marks Weightage)
Chapters Contents of Physics

Unit - 1

Physics And Measurement

Physics, technology and society, S I Units, fundamental and derived units, least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit - 2

Kinematics

The frame of reference, motion in a straight line, Position-time graph, speed and velocity; Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graph, relations for uniformly accelerated motion, Scalars and Vectors, Vector. Addition and subtraction, zero vector, scalar and vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.

Unit - 3

Laws Of Motion

Force and inertia, Newton's First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton's Second Law of motion, Impulses; Newton's Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: centripetal force and its applications.

Unit - 4

Work, Energy and Power

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power.
The potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and neoconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit - 5

Rotational Motion

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; a moment of a force; torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; the moment of inertia, the radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.Rigid body rotation equations of rotational motion.

Unit - 6

Gravitation

The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit - 7

Properties of Solids And Liquids

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's Law. Young's modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications. Viscosity. Stokes'law. Terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow. Reynolds number. Bernoulli's principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension - drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry, change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation. Newton's law of cooling.

Unit - 8

Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, the concept of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. The first law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.

Unit - 9

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas, Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, the concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: RMS speed of gas molecules: Degrees of freedom. Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path. Avogadro's number.

Unit - 10

Oscillations And Waves

Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase: oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant: energy in S.H.M. - kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum - derivation of expression for its time period: Free, forced and damped oscillations, Resonance.
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves. Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect in sound.

Unit - 11

Electrostatics

Electric charges: Conservation of charge. Coulomb's law forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges: superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines. Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole. Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric flux. Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates. Energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit - 12

Current Electricity

Electric current. Drift velocity. Ohm's law. Electrical resistance. Resistances of different materials. V-I characteristics of Ohmic and non-ohmic conductors. Electrical energy and power. Electrical resistivity. Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.

Electric Cell and its internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, a combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge. Metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications.

Unit - 13

Magnetic Effects Of Current And Magnetism

Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. The force between two parallel current carrying conductors, definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field: Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances. Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

Unit - 14

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Electromagnetic induction: Faraday's law. Induced emf and current: Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage: reactance and impedance: LCR series circuit, resonance: Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

Unit - 15

Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays. gamma rays), Applications of e.m. waves.

Unit - 16

Optics

Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula. Total internal reflection and its applications. Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism; Lens Formula. Magnification. Power of a Lens. Combination of thin lenses in contact. Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optice: wavefront and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Young's double-slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources, and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane-polarized light: Brewster's law, uses of plane-polarized light and Polaroids.

Unit - 17

Dual Nature Of Matter And Radiation

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect. Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation: particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.

Unit - 18

Atoms And Nuclei

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars: isotones. Radioactivity-alpha. Beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit - 19

Electronic Devices

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED. The photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Unit - 20

Communication Systems

Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals.The Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).

##### SECTION B: Practical (20% Marks Weightage)
 Experimental Skills Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities: 1. Vernier callipers-its use to measure the internal and external diameter and depth of a vessel. 2. Screw gauge-its use to determine thickness/ diameter of thin sheet/wire. 3. Simple Pendulum-dissipation of energy by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. 4. Metre Scale - the mass of a given object by principle of moments. 5. Young's modulus of elasticity of the material of a metallic wire. 6. Surface tension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents. 7. Co-efficient of Viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body. 8. Plotting a cooling curve for the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time. 9. Speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. 10. Specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) liquid by method of mixtures. 11. The resistivity of the material of a given wire using metre bridge. 12. The resistance of a given wire using Ohm's law. 13. Potentiometer-a) Comparison of emf of two primary cells. b) Determination of internal resistance of a cell. 14. Resistance and figure of merit of a galvanometer by half deflection method. 15. The focal length of;a) Convex mirrorb) Concave mirror, andc) Convex lens, using the parallax method. 16. The plot of angle of deviation vs angle of incidence for a triangular prism. 17. Refractive index of a glass slab using a traveling microscope. 18. Characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias. 19. Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and finding reverse break down voltage. 20. Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain. 21. Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor. IC. Resistor. A capacitor from mixed collection of such items. 22. Using a multimeter to:a) Identify the base of a transistorb) Distinguish between NPN and PNP type transistorc) See the unidirectional current in case of a diode and an LED.d) Check the correctness or otherwise of a given electronic component (diode, transistor or IC).

##### JEE Main 2023 Chemistry Syllabus

The chemistry syllabus in JEE Main is divided into three sections.

##### Section A: Physical Chemistry
U.No. Contents of Physical Chemistry

1.

Some Basic Concepts In Chemistry

Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory: Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound: Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures. S.I. Units, dimensional analysis: Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae:Chemical equations and stoichiometry

2.

States of Matter

Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.

Gaseous State:
Measurable properties of gases: Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law. Graham's law of diffusion. Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation;Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.
Liquid State:
Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State:
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications: Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, an imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties

3.

Atomic Structure

Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanical model of the atom, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one-electron wave functions: Variation of ψ and ψ2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number: Rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle. Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

4.

Chemical Bonding And Molecular Strucure

Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, the concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.

Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity. Fajan's rule, dipole moment: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.

Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - its important features, the concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.

Molecular Orbital Theory - its important features. LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, the concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.

Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

5.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
The first law of thermodynamics - Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
The second law of thermodynamics - Spontaneity of processes; ΔS of the universe and ΔG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, ΔG° (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

6.

Solutions

Different methods for expressing the concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), the vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law - Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions - a relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, the elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff factor and its significance.

7.

Equilibrium

Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibrium involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid - gas and solid-gas equilibria, Henry's law. General characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibrium involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, the significance of ΔG and ΔG° in chemical equilibrium, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, the effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius. Bronsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water. pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.

8.

Redox Reactions And Electrochemistry

Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.

Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications.

Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement: Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs' energy change: Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.

9.

Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first-order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, the effect of temperature on rate of reactions, Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).

10.

Surface Chemistry

Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.

Catalysis - Homogeneous and heterogeneous activity and selectively of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.

Colloidal state- distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids - lyophilic. lyophobic; multi-molecular. macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect. Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation: Emulsions and their characteristics.

##### Section B: Inorganic Chemistry
U.No. Contents of Inorganic Chemistry

11.

Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties

Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p. d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.

12.

General Principles And Processes Of Isolation Of Metals

Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals - concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al. Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.

13.

Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides - ionic, covalent, and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel

14.

S -Block Elements (Alkali And Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group - 1 and 2 Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone. Plaster of Paris and cement: Biological significance of Na, K. Mg and Ca.

15.

P - Block Elements

Group -13 to Group 18 Elements

General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.

GroupWise study of the p - block elements Group -13

Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

Group -14

The tendency for catenation; Structure, properties, and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites, and silicones.

Group -15

Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.

Group -16

Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.

Group -17

Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.

Group -18

Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

16.

d - and f- Block Elements

Transition Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first-row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Inner Transition Elements

Lanthanoids -
Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.

Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.

17.

Co-Ordination Compounds

Introduction to co-ordination compounds. Werner's theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity. chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).

18.

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil.

Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and Stratospheric

Tropospheric pollutants - Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Greenhouse effect and Global warming; Acid rain;

Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.

Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its mechanism and effects.

Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.

Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.

##### Section C: Organic Chemistry
U.No. Contents of Organic Chemistry

19.

Purification And Characterisation Of Organic Compounds

Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography - principles and their applications

Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.

Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.

Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae: Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.

20.

Some Basic Principles Of Organic Chemistry

Tetravalency of carbon: Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p): Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series: Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.

Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)

Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.

Electronic displacement in a covalent bond

Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement.

21.

Hydrocarbons

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.

Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.

Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's and peroxide effect): Ozonolysis and polymerization.

Alkynes - Acidic character: Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides: Polymerization.

Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene-structure and aromaticity: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration.

Friedel - Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of the functional group in mono-substituted benzene.

22.

Organic Compounds Containing Halogens

General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.

Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform freons and DDT.

23.

Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols:
Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols: mechanism of dehydration.

Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation. Reimer-Tiemann reaction.

Ethers: Structure.

Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN. NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation: reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); the acidity of α-hydrogen. aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction. Haloform reaction, Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.

Carboxylic Acids

Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

24.

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

General methods of preparation. Properties, reactions and uses.

Amines: Nomenclature, classification structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.

Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

25.

Polymers

General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization - Addition and condensation, copolymerization

Natural and synthetic, rubber and vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

26.

Biomolecules

General introduction and importance of biomolecules.

CARBOHYDRATES - Classification; aldoses and ketoses: monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).

PROTEINS - Elementary Idea of α-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides. Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

VITAMINS - Classification and functions.

NUCLEIC ACIDS - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA.

Biological functions of nucleic acids.

27.

Chemistry In Everyday Life

Chemicals in medicines - Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, anti-fertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids. Anti-histamins -their meaning and common examples.

Chemicals in food - Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common examples.

Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

28.

Principles Related To Practical Chemistry

Detection of extra elements (Nitrogen, Sulphur, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups; hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone) carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.

The chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:

Inorganic compounds; Mohr's salt, potash alum.

Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.

The chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises - Acids, bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4 , Mohr's salt vs KMnO4

Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations - Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+.
Anions - CO32-, S2-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br-, I-. (Insoluble salts excluded).

Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:

1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

##### Candidates can check topic wise syllabus for Part I and II.

Apti.T. Contents

Part - I

Awareness of persons. Buildings, Materials.

Objects, Texture related to Architecture and Build-environment. Visualising three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional drawings. Visualizing. Different sides of three-dimensional objects. Analytical Reasoning Mental Ability (Visual, Numerical and Verbal).

Part - II

Three dimensional - perception: Understanding and appreciation of scale and proportion of objects, building forms and elements, colour texture harmony and contrast Design and drawing of geometrical or abstract shapes and patterns in pencil. Transformation of forms both 2D and 3D union, subtraction, rotation, development of surfaces and volumes, Generation of plans, elevations and 3D views of objects, Creating two dimensional and three dimensional compositions using given shapes and forms.

DRAWING TEST

Sketching of scenes and activities from memory of urbanscape (public space, market, festivals, street scenes, monuments, recreational spaces, etc). landscape (riverfronts. Jungle.Gardens, trees. Plants, etc.) and rural life.

To be conducted in a Drawing sheet.

Note: Candidates are advised to bring pencils. Own geometry box set, crasets and colour pencils and crayons for the Drawing Test.

##### Candidates can check topic units of syllabus.

Apti.T. Contents

Part - I

Awareness of persons. Buildings, Materials.

Objects, Texture related to Architecture and Build-environment. Visualising three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional drawings. Visualizing. Different sides of three-dimensional objects. Analytical Reasoning Mental Ability (Visual, Numerical and Verbal).

Part - II

Three dimensional- perception: Understanding and appreciation of scale and proportion of objects, building forms and elements, colour texture harmony and contrast Design and drawing of geometrical or abstract shapes and patterns in pencil. Transformation of forms both 2D and 3D union, subtraction, rotation, development of surfaces and volumes, Generation of Plan, elevations and 3D views of objects, Creating two-dimensional and three-dimensional compositions using given shapes and forms.

Planning Contents of Units

Unit - 1

GENERAL AWARNESS

General knowledge questions and knowledge about prominent ciites, development issues, government programs, etc.

Unit - 2

SOCIAL SCIENCES

The idea of nationalism, nationalism in India, pre-modern world, 19th-century global economy, colonialism and colonial cities, industrialization, resources and development, types of resources, agriculture, water, mineral resources, industries, national economy; Human Settlements.

Power-sharing, federalism, political parties, democracy, the constitution of India.

Economic development- economic sectors, globalization, the concept of development, poverty; Population structure, social exclusion, and inequality, urbanization, rural development, colonial cities,

Unit - 3

THINKING SKILLS

Comprehension (unseen passage); map reading skills, scale, distance, direction, area, etc:; critical reasoning; understanding of charts, graphs and tables, basic concepts of statistics and quantitative reasoning.

### JEE FAQs

#### Why JEE?

The Joint Entrance Examination is a national level engineering entrance exam held twice a year for admission into various engineering colleges in India. The National Testing Agency conducts it.

#### What are the two exams that come under JEE?

Joint Entrance Exam is formed by two separate exams- JEE Main and JEE Advanced.

#### JEE is conducted by which Agency?

The Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) is a national-level computer-based engineering entrance exam conducted by NTA (National Test Agency) for admission to various colleges in India, such as Indian Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Information Technology and other Government funded technical Institutes.

#### In which colleges admissions is done through JEE Mains / JEE Advanced ?

IITs, NITs, IIEST, IIITs and other GFTIs. Please note that for admission in IIT, a candidate has to pass JEE Main + JEE Advanced.

#### How many papers are there in JEE Main?

JEE Mains comprises of two papers, Paper - I and Paper - II. Candidates can choose either of the two. Both papers have multiple-choice questions. Paper - I is for the admission in B.E./B.Tech courses. Paper - II is for the admission in B.Arch and B.Planning courses.

#### Are both papers mandatory in JEE Main?

Candidates can choose either of the two.

#### When will JEE Main exams will be conducted?

JEE Main 2023 Session - 1 exam done on 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31 January 2023. JEE Main 2023 Session - 2 Exam Dates are 6, 8, 10, 11 and 12 April 2023.

#### For how many years result is valid?

The validity of the result is one year.

#### Will all candidates get the same sets of papers?

All Candidates will not get the same sets of question papers.

#### What is normalization procedure?

The normalization process is an established practice prescribed by NTA for comparing candidate scores in multi-session papers adopted in other large academic selection tests conducted in India. In simple terms, it ensures that no candidate is at any loss or may even get benefit from this procedure.

#### How merit ranking is determined when there is a tie?

1. if the candidate is acquiring equal marks/percentile, then among themselves merit will be determined to below sequence :-
(a) Candidate acquiring higher marks/percentile in Maths.
(b) Candidate acquiring higher marks/percentile in Physics,
(c) Candidate acquiring higher marks/percentile in chemistry,
(d) Candidate who is older is preferred.
2. The final ranking will be done after the tie is resolved.

#### What is the process of JEE Main registration?

5 steps need to be followed to fill the registration form 1. Fill online form, 2. Upload documents, 3. Select the exam centre, 4. Payment & 5. Submit.

#### In how many centres, the Exam will be conducted?

JEE Main 2023 exam has been conducted in 290 cities in India and in 25 cities outside India and over 8.22 lakh candidates have appeared in the exam.

#### How is NTA rank calculated?

The NTA will rank students based on their percentile marks, which will be calculated according to a pre-determined formula.

#### How many candidates on an average appear for JEE Mains and JEE Advanced exam every year?

Around 10 lakh students appear for JEE Mains every year and around 1.45 lakh students give JEE Advanced Exam every year.

#### What is the pattern of the Exam?

JEE Main 2023 consists of 3 main subjects, namely, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Paper-1, is for admission in B.E. / B. Tech. Courses. In paper-1, there are 25 questions from Mathematics, 25 from Physics and 25 from Chemistry; therefore, the total number of questions is 75. Each question will carry 4 marks, and each incorrect response gets (-1) negative marking. The duration of the Exam is 3 hours (180 minutes). There will be negative marking for both Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Numerical Questions. The maximum marks in the Exam are 300. Paper-2, is for admission in B. Arch. In paper-2, there are 25 questions from Mathematics, 50 from Aptitude test, 2 from Drawing Test; therefore, the total number of questions is 77. Each question will carry 4 marks, and each incorrect response gets (-1) negative marking. The duration of the Exam is 3 hours (180 minutes). No negative marking is done for numerical questions. The maximum marks in the Exam are 400. Paper-3, is for admission in B. Planning courses. In paper-3, there are 25 questions from Mathematics, 50 from Aptitude test, 25 from Planning Based Objective Type MCQs, therefore, the total number of questions is 100. Each question will carry 4 marks, and each incorrect response gets (-1) negative marking. The duration of the Exam is 3 hours (180 minutes). There will be negative marking for both Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Numerical Questions. The maximum marks in the Exam are 400.

#### Is there any negative marking for the numerical question?

There will be negative marking for both Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Numerical Questions.

#### Is there any age criteria set for JEE - Main?

There is no age bar but students need to pass JEE Main exam within 2 years of passing Class XII.(maximum three attempts in consecutive years)

#### Is NCERT important for JEE Main?

NCERT is the most important textbook to prepare for JEE Main.

#### Who conducts JEE counselling?

In JEE, the joint admission process is conducted by Joint Seat Allocation Authority (JoSAA).

#### How to register for JEE Main counselling?

2. Go through all the instructions carefully and click on "I Agree" button.
3. Fill in all the details carefully in the appeared JoSAA Registration form.
4. Right check declaration option and click on Submit button.
5. A new page will appear mentioning all the information you have provided. Check it and if it's correct, click on the "CONFIRM REGISTRATION" button.

#### What is the complete procedure of getting admission through JEE Main Counselling?

The complete admission process through JEE Main counselling is as follows :-
1. Online registration,
2. Choice filling and locking,
3. Seat allotment,
4. Seat acceptance and Fee payment,
5. Document Verification &
6. Reporting to the allotted college.

#### When does counselling for JEE starts? Which agency announces dates for counselling?

Joint Seat Allocation Authority (JoSAA) 2023 has announced the dates of counselling start in the month of September 2023 after the declaration of JEE Advanced Results 2023. JEE Main 2023 and JEE Advanced 2023 qualified aspirants will be able to register for (JoSAA) Counselling 2023 from September 2023.

#### When will the results of JEE Main be released?

The JEE Main 2023 paper - 1 result has been released on NTA Results Website.

###### Any dress code for JEE Main?

No, there is no as such dress code for JEE Mains. The only restrictions are for cap, scarf, jewellery, stoles, metallic items, etc.